Dear Healthcare Practitioners: On Monday, May 27th, we will not be shipping maggots due to the Memorial Day holiday and FedEx being closed. We will resume shipping on Tuesday, May 28th. Until then, all orders will be shipped Monday thru Thursday for overnight delivery. For same day shipping, please place your order no later than 1PM PST. At this time, we will not be shipping international orders. For Canadian orders, please contact us about shipping to the US/Canadian border. We apologize for any inconvenience.

Published Literature and Clinical Studies

  1. Anderson I. Debridement methods in wound care. Nurs Stand. 2006 Feb 22-28;20(24):65-6, 68, 70 passim. PMID: 16526165
  2. Armstrong DG, Salas P, Short B, Martin BR, Kimbriel HR, Nixon BP, Boulton AJ. Maggot therapy in “lower-extremity hospice” wound care: fewer amputations and more antibiotic-free days. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005 May-Jun;95(3):254-7. PMID: 15901812
  3. Armstrong DG, Mossel J, Short B, Nixon BP, Knowles EA, Boulton AJ. Maggot debridement therapy: a primer. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002 Jul-Aug;92(7):398-401. PMID: 12122127
  4. Attinger CE, Janis JE, Steinberg J, Schwartz J, Al-Attar A, Couch K. Clinical approach to wounds: debridement and wound bed preparation including the use of dressings and wound-healing adjuvants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun;117(7 Suppl):72S-109S. PMID: 16799376
  5. Baer WS. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larva of the blow fly). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1931;13:438–475.
  6. Ballard K, Baxter H. Developments in wound care for difficult to manage wounds. Br J Nurs. 2000 Apr 13-26;9(7):405-8, 410, 412. PMID: 11111435
  7. Beasley WD, Hirst G. Making a meal of MRSA-the role of biosurgery in hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 2004 Jan;56(1):6-9. PMID: 14706264
  8. Bell NJ, Thomas S. Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey. Vet Rec. 2001 Dec 22-29;149(25):768-70. PMID: 11808664
  9. Bonn D. Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection. Lancet. 2000 Sep 30;356(9236):1174. PMID: 11030307
  10. Calianno C, Jakubek P. Wound bed preparation: laying the foundation for treating chronic wounds, part I. Nursing. 2006 Feb;36(2):70-1. PMID: 16462279
  11. Cerovský V, Zdárek J, Fucík V, Monincová L, Voburka Z, Bém R. Lucifensin, the long-sought antimicrobial factor of medicinal maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67(3):455-66. Epub 2009 Nov 18. PMID: 19921400
  12. Church J. Biosurgery in wound healing. J Wound Care. 1996 Feb;5(2):51. PMID: 8697131
  13. Church JC. Re: Bleeding complications in patients treated with maggot debridement therapy, Steenvoorde P and Oskam J, IJLEW 2005;4(1):57-58. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Mar;4(1):59. PMID: 15860454
  14. Church JC, Courtenay M. Maggot debridement therapy for chronic wounds. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Jun;1(2):129-34. Erratum in: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Sep;1(3):213. PMID: 15871963
  15. Claxton MJ, Armstrong DG, Short B, Vazquez JR, Boulton AJ. 5 questions–and answers–about maggot debridement therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2003 Mar-Apr;16(2):99-102. PMID: 12690234
  16. Dumville JC, Worthy G, Bland JM, Cullum N, Dowson C, Iglesias C, Mitchell JL, Nelson EA, Soares MO, Torgerson DJ; VenUS II team. Larval therapy for leg ulcers (VenUS II): randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009; 19;338:b773. PMID: 19304577
  17. Dunn C, Raghavan U, Pfleiderer AG. The use of maggots in head and neck necrotizing fasciitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2002 Jan;116(1):70-2. PMID: 11860662
  18. Evans P. Larvae therapy and venous leg ulcers: reducing the ‘yuk factor’. J Wound Care. 2002 Nov;11(10):407-8. PMID: 12494833
  19. Fitzpatrick M. Tiny “surgeons” prove surprisingly effective. JAMA. 2000 Nov 8;284(18):2306-7. PMID: 11066163
  20. Husain ZS, Fallat LM. Maggot therapy for wound debridement in a traumatic foot-degloving injury: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003 Nov-Dec;42(6):371-6. PMID: 14688781
  21. Jarvis A. Maggot therapy. Lancet. 2000 Dec 9;356(9246):2016.PMID: 11130559
  22. Jones M, Thomas S. Larval therapy. Nurs Stand. 2000 Feb 2-8;14(20):47-51; quiz 53-4. Review. PMID: 11209358
  23. Jukema GN, Menon AG, Bernards AT, Steenvoorde P, Taheri Rastegar A, van Dissel JT. Amputation-sparing treatment by nature: “surgical” maggots revisited. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 15;35(12):1566-71. Epub 2002 Dec 2. PMID: 12471580
  24. Knowles A, Findlow A, Jackson N. Management of a diabetic foot ulcer using larval therapy. Nurs Stand. 2001 Oct 24-30;16(6):73-6. PMID: 11977731
  25. Krajacic A. Consider using maggots. Todays Surg Nurse. 1998 May-Jun;20(3):28-32. PMID: 10026636
  26. Mumcuoglu KY. Clinical applications for maggots in wound care. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2001;2(4):219-27. Review. PMID: 11705249
  27. Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I. Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds. Int J Dermatol. 1999 Aug;38(8):623-7. PMID: 10487456
  28. Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I. Maggot therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 1998 Nov;21(11):2030-1. PMID: 9802765
  29. Namias N, Varela JE, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG. Biodebridement: a case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000 May-Jun;21(3):254-7. PMID: 10850908
  30. Nigam Y, Bexfield A, Thomas S, Ratcliffe NA. Maggot Therapy: The Science and Implication for CAM Part II-Maggots Combat Infection. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Sep;3(3):303-8. PMID: 16951714
  31. Nigam Y, Bexfield A, Thomas S, Ratcliffe NA. Maggot Therapy: The Science and Implication for CAM Part I-History and Bacterial Resistance. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):223-7. PMID: 16786052
  32. Pechter EA and Sherman RA: Maggot therapy: The Medical Metamorphosis. Plast Reconstruct Surg. 72 (4): 567-570. 1983.
  33. Preuss SF, Stenzel MJ, Esriti A. The successful use of maggots in necrotizing fasciitis of the neck: a case report. Head Neck. 2004 Aug;26(8):747-50. PMID: 15287043
  34. Rojo S, Geraghty S. Hemophilia and maggots: from hospital admission to healed wound. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004 Apr;50(4):30, 32, 34. PMID: 15259799
  35. Scavee V, Polis X, Schoevaerdts JC. Maggot therapy: many hands make light work. Acta Chir Belg. 2003 Aug;103(4):405-7. PMID: 14524161
  36. Sealby N. The use of maggot therapy in the treatment of a malignant foot wound. Br J Community Nurs. 2004 Mar;9(3):S16-9. PMID: 15029003
  37. Semple L. Use of larval therapy to treat a diabetic patient’s pressure ulcer. Br J Nurs. 2003 Aug;12(15 Suppl):S6-13. PMID: 12937380
  38. Sherman R. Age-old therapy gets new approval. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):12-5. PMID: 15716781
  39. Sherman RA, Morrison S, Ng D. Maggot debridement therapy for serious horse wounds – A survey of practitioners. Vet J. 2006 Jul 8; PMID: 16831562
  40. Sherman RA, Stevens H, Ng D, Iversen E. Treating wounds in small animals with maggot debridement therapy: A survey of practitioners. Vet J. 2005 Dec 27.PMID: 16386439
  41. Sherman RA, Shimoda KJ. Presurgical maggot debridement of soft tissue wounds is associated with decreased rates of postoperative infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 1;39(7):1067-70. Epub 2004 Sep 1. PMID: 15472863
  42. Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers unresponsive to conventional therapy. Diabetes Care. 2003 Feb;26(2):446-51. PMID: 12547878
  43. Sherman RA. Maggot versus conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair Regen. 2002 Jul-Aug;10(4):208-14. PMID: 12191002
  44. Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for foot and leg wounds. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2002 Jun;1(2):135-42. PMID: 15871964
  45. Sherman RA, Sherman J, Gilead L, Lipo M, Mumcuoglu KY. Maggot debridement therapy in outpatients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Sep;82(9):1226-9. PMID: 11552195
  46. Sherman RA, Hall MJ, Thomas S. Medicinal maggots: an ancient remedy for some contemporary afflictions. Annu Rev Entomol. 2000;45:55-81. Review. PMID: 10761570
  47. Sherman RA. A new dressing design for use with maggot therapy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Aug;100(2):451-6. PMID: 9252615
  48. Sherman RA, Tran JM, Sullivan R. Maggot therapy for venous stasis ulcers. Arch Dermatol. 1996 Mar;132(3):254-6. PMID: 8607628
  49. Sherman RA, Wyle FA, Thrupp L. Effects of seven antibiotics on the growth and development of Phaenicia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae. J Med Entomol. 1995 Sep;32(5):646-9. PMID: 7473619
  50. Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M. Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. J Spinal Cord Med. 1995 Apr;18(2):71-4. PMID: 7640976
  51. Steenvoorde P, Buddingh TJ, van Engeland A, Oskam J. Maggot therapy and the “yuk” factor: an issue for the patient? Wound Repair Regen. 2005 May-Jun;13(3):350-2. PMID: 15953056
  52. Steenvoorde P, Oskam J. Use of larval therapy to combat infection after breast-conserving surgery. J Wound Care. 2005 May;14(5):212-3. PMID: 15909436
  53. Steenvoorde P, Oskam J. Bleeding complications in patients treated with maggot debridement therapy. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Mar;4(1):57-8. PMID: 15860453
  54. Steenvoorde P, Jukema GN. The antimicrobial activity of maggots: in-vivo results. J Tissue Viability. 2004 Jul;14(3):97-101. PMID: 15709356
  55. Steenvoorde P, Jukema GN. Can laboratory investigations help us to decide when to discontinue larval therapy? J Wound Care. 2004 Jan;13(1):38-40. PMID: 14969027
  56. Summers JB, Kaminski J. Maggot debridement therapy for diabetic necrotic foot. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Dec 15;68(12):2327, 2330.PMID: 14705752
  57. Summers JB, Kaminski J. Maggot debridement therapy (Maggot Therapy) for burn wounds. Burns. 2003 Aug;29(5):501-2. PMID: 12880736
  58. Teich S, Myers RA. Maggot therapy for severe skin infections. South Med J. 1986;79(9):1153-5.
  59. Thomas S. The use of sterile maggots in wound management. Nurs Times. 2002 Sep 3-9;98(36):45-6. PMID: 12244669
  60. Thomas S, Jones M, Wynn K, Fowler T. The current status of maggot therapy in wound healing. Br J Nurs. 2001 Dec;10(22 Suppl):S5-8, S10, S12. PMID: 11842471
  61. Thomas S, Jones M. Wound debridement: evaluating the costs. Nurs Stand. 2001 Feb 14-20;15(22):59-61. Review. PMID: 12211948
  62. Thomas S, Andrews AM, Hay NP, Bourgoise S. The anti-microbial activity of maggot secretions: results of a preliminary study. J Tissue Viability. 1999 Oct;9(4):127-32. PMID: 10808842
  63. Thomas S, Andrews A, Jones M, Church J. Maggots are useful in treating infected or necrotic wounds. BMJ. 1999 Mar 20;318(7186):807-8. PMID: 10082718
  64. Vistnes LM, Lee R, Ksander GA. Proteolytic activity of blowfly larvae secretions in experimental burns. Surgery. 1981 Nov;90(5):835-41. PMID: 7029766
  65. Wayman J, Nirojogi V, Walker A, Sowinski A, Walker MA. The cost effectiveness of larval therapy in venous ulcers. J Tissue Viability. 2000 Jul;10(3):91-4. Erratum in: J Tissue Viability 2001 Jan;11(1):51. PMID: 11299572
  66. Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy–an effective method of ulcer debridement. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Mar;28(2):134-7. PMID: 12653696
  67. Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy for a leg ulcer with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Derm Venereol. 1999 Jul;79(4):320-1. PMID: 10429993
  68. Wollina U, Kinscher M, Fengler H. Maggot therapy in the treatment of wounds of exposed knee prostheses. Int J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;44(10):884-6. PMID: 16207200
  69. Wollina U, Liebold K, Schmidt WD, Hartmann M, Fassler D. Biosurgery supports granulation and debridement in chronic wounds—clinical data and remittance spectroscopy measurement. Int J Dermatol. 2002 Oct;41(10):635-9. PMID: 12390183

Maggot Therapy Links and Web Resources

The place to begin your search is at our Links and Community Resources page.